Man is an industrious animal. He is the most, intellectual amongst all the living beings. One can progress or regress, construct or destruct, depending on one’s own individual choice. Every human being is born to die. We may also say that the destination of life is `Death.’ Yet so obviously, and apparently, we see that some die in agony, others in peace, and some others become immortal. Why all this difference?


If we are travelling on a wrong path, it is unlikely that we shall ever reach our destination. So what do we do? We have to come back and take the right path. This itself is `Pratikraman.


`Pratikraman’ means `to come back’, to revert to the truth, retreat from the worldly wrongs, and proceed towards the truth.


The road of life is not a one way street. It is always possible to retrace our faulty steps, and set them on flawless ground. Set your foot on the right path, and the goal of life is awaiting you.


One is always busy in reviewing others, criticising others, and commenting on others. Ethically this serves no purpose, and only helps to waste valuable moments of life. It is said that Nothing succeeds like success.To achieve this success, the most important thing, is self analysis, self realization, self improvement and Introspection.


All theses guidelines are contained in the Pratikraman Sootra.


Now let us come to a detailed understanding of Pratikraman Sootra by considering it under various headings.

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To be liberated from the sins already committed, and be careful that these and similar sins are not repeated in future, is the chief aim and objective of Pratikraman. This in itself keeps our mind, and body in the purest state.





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There are five types of Pratikraman


  1. દેવાસી : DEVASI : To ask for forgiveness for the sins committed during day time is known as “Devasi Pratikraman”. Hence, this Pratikraman is done in the evening.

  2. રાઈ : RAYI : Similarly for the sins committed during night, the Pratikraman, which is done in the morning is known as “Ravasi Pratikraman.”

  3. પક્ખિ : PAKKHI : This type of Pratikraman is done once in 15 days.

  4. ચોમાસી : CHOMASI : This is done once in 4 months, i.e. on full moon day (Poonam) of Kartik, Falgun and Ashadh months of the lunar calendar, for the sins committed during that period.

  5. સંવત્સરી : SAMVATSARI : This type of Pratikraman is done once in a year, i.e. on the last day of Paryushan. The Special significance of this Pratikraman is that if not every-day, then at least once in a year, one ought to do it.

This is the bare minimum, one should do. He who is perpetually busy in calculating the material gains, the profits and losses, should at least do this Pratikraman, where of course the result is nothing but profit and this is a guaranteed profit.



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Shri Pratikraman Sootra comprises of six Essentials ( આવશ્યક ) which form the correct methodical sequence to do this prayer of Pratikraman.

The following are the six essentials :-

  1. Samayik
  2. Chaturvimshatistva (Chauvvisantho)
  3. Vandana
  4. Pratikraman
  5. Kayotsarg
  6. Pratyakhyan


  1. SAMAYIK  (સામાયિક)

The word is formed as સમ્ + આય + ઈક. સમ્ means a state of mental equilibrium, which is serene, tranquil, and unperturbed.

This state of mind is not affected by joy or sorrow, gain or loss. Success does not bring pride and failure does not bring misery. This, in short is સમ  or  સમભાવ.

આય Means to get or obtain, or achieve. Hence સામાયિક means to achieve such a steadfast mental state, which would remain untouched by these transient, and momentary worldly occurrences. It brings to you by meditation, a permanent bliss.

Basically, there are 2 types of Samayik. One is which people living a family life do. The Samayik is for 48 minutes. The other is one which is done by our Saints (સાધુ-સાધ્વી) . Their Samayik is for life – time. In other words Samayik is their way of life.

It is truly said that virtuous gain by doing one samayik is worth far more than donating millions of gold coins.

A Curious disciple asked his Guru Lord Mahavira, `Oh Lord! What one does gain by doing Samayik?

  प्र. सामाइएणं भंते   !   जीवे किं  जणयइ ? 

  उ. सामाइएणं  सावज्ज  जोगं  विरइ  जणयइ ।  उत्त.  २९/८

Lord replies, “By Samayik the soul ceases from sinful occupations.”

One can realise from this query that our religion “Jainism” is not a blind pursuit. It is following of reason and logic. Every word has a definite significance.

Samayik gives us mental peace, helps in mental concentration, washes away the blemishes on our soul. It makes us the master of our thought, word and deed. Samayik leads us to the path of Emancipation towards the final and ultimate Bliss, i.e. `MOKSHA.’


  1. CHATURVIMSHTISTAVA  (ચતુર્વિંશતિસ્તવ - ચઉવ્વિસંથો)

Chaturvimshtistava means offering our worship to the 24 Tithankars,

Once again, disciple asks Lord Mahavira :-

 प्र. चउव्वीसत्थएणं भन्ते !  जिवे  किं जणयइ ?

 उ. चउव्वीसत्थएणं दंसण विसोहिं जणयइ । उत्तरा. २९/९

The question is. `Oh Lord! What does one benefit by the worship of the 24 Tirthankaras?

Lord replies : :By Chauvvisantho the soul arrives at purity of faith”.

It is certainly acceptable to all of us that engrossment does not come without involvement.

Constant chanting of the Lord’s (Tirthankars) name destroys all evils, expels all evils and purifies the mind. Only a pure mind is receptive to the virtues.


  1. VANDANA  (વંદના)

Vanadana means offering our salutations. Salutations may be offered to the Lord and Saints (સાધુ-સાધ્વી) .

Lord Mahavira has been asked :

 वंदणएणं भंते !  जीवे किं जणयइ ?

`Oh Lord. “What does one benefit by Vandana” and Lord Mahavira replies :-

वंदणएणं नियागोयं  कम्मं खवेइ उच्चगोयं कम्मं निबंधइ ।

सोहग्गं च णं अपडिहयं आणाफलं निव्वतेइ । डाहिण भावं च णं जणयइ ।

उत्त. २९/१०

“By Vandana, the soul destroys such Karma which leads to birth in low families and acquires such Karma which leads to birth in noble families. He wins the affection of people, which results in his being looked upon as an authority and he brings general good-will”.

The religious text of ‘Pravachar Sarodhar’ also enumerates the 6 benefits of Vandana, as follows :

  1. It creates modesty
  2. It expels undue pride
  3. It establishes devotion to our Guru
  4. It helps to fulfill the order of the Tirthankars
  5. It fulfils the essentialities of scriptures
  6. It ultimately leads you towards `Moksha.’


  1. PRATIKRAMAN  (પ્રતિક્રમણ)

We have already learned that Pratikraman means retreat from wordly sins. We have also considered the various types of Pratikraman, let us now consider the benefits of Pratikraman.

“Oh! Lord, what does one benefit by Pratikraman”? 

 प्र. पडिक्कमणेणं भंते !  जीवे किं जणयइ ?

 उ. पडिक्कमणेणं वयछिदाणि पिदेइ । पिहिय-वयछिदे

 पुण जीवे निरुद्धासवे असबलचरिते अदसु

 पवयणमवयवसु उवउत्ते अपुर्हत्ते सुप्पणिहिए विहरइ । उत्त. २९/११

“By Pratikraman, one obviates transgressions of the vows, thereby he stops the influx of Karma, preserves a pure conduct, practices the eight Pravachan Mattas (5 Samitis + 3 Guptis), does not neglect the practice of control and pays great attention to it” replies Lord Mahavira.

Books and volumes can be written on this precise reply given by the Lord. However, in a nutshell, it means that Pratikraman helps to take you on the blessed path of Emancipation, by preparing you adequately for it, i.e. by sealing all the entries of evil and leaving behind only the radiance of purity in you.



  1. KAYOTSARG (કાયોત્સર્ગ -  કાઉસગ્ગ)

To be engrossed in the observation and analysis of one’s soul by forgetting about one’s body or physical being is known as “Kayotsarg”

કાયોત્સર્ગ   કાય   +   ઉત્સર્ગ   (દેહભાવનાનો ત્યાગ)

Hence, Kayotsarg means insight in one’s own mental faculties. It is a sort of meditation. It is highly essential to distinguish the body from soul. If we have to study our soul, physical comforts or discomforts have no significance.

 प्र. काउस्सग्गेणं भंते ! जीवे किं जणयइ ?

 उ. काउस्सग्गेणं तीयपडुपन्नं पायच्छितं विसोहेश

 विशुद्ध पायच्छिते च  जीवे निव्वुयहिए ओहिरिय

 भरुव्व भार वहे. पसत्थ  झाणोवगए सुहं सुहेणं विहरइ ।

उत्त. २९/१२

Question : “What does one benefit by Kayotsarg?”

Answer : By Kayotsarg, one gets rid of past and present transgressions, which require Prayaschitta; thereby one’s mind is set at ease, like a porter who is eased of his burden; and engaging in praiseworthy contemplation, one enjoys happiness.

  1. PRATYAKHYAN  (પ્રત્યાખ્યાન)

Pratyakhyan means to renounce. Kayotsarg gives us pardon for the past and present. Whereas Pratyakhyan stops the sins we are likely to commit in future.

As long as we do not banish desire, we cannot stop the inflow of evils and sins. Glories have been sung about renunciation in all our religious scriptures. It is quite simple that if we renounce `desire,’ then it will banish the ‘the want’ and this in turn will eliminate ‘the need’.

A Disciple asks his Guru Lord Mahavira, “What does one benefit by Pratyakhyan’ (vow)?”

 प्र. पच्चक्खाणेणं भंते !  जीवे किं जणइय ?

Lord Mahavira replies :

 उ.  पच्चक्खाणेणं आसवदाराइं निरुंभइ ।

 पच्चक्खाणेणं इच्छानिरोहं जणयइ । इच्छानिरोहं

 गए य णं जीवे सव्वदव्वेस वीणीच तण्हेसीडभए 

Oh! Disciple, “By Pratyakhyan, one shuts the doors of the incoming Karmas, one prevents desires rising in him, by prevention of desires one becomes as it were indifferent and cool towards all objects.”

Further, we may also say that Pratyakhyan is not only to sacrifice desire, but also an oath or a binding which we undertake to sacrifice desire.

Hereby, we conclude the last and the sixth essential of Pratikraman, All throughout, we have realised from the enlightening, distinctive dialogue and discussion between disciple and Lord Mahavira, that this holy Pratikraman Sootra has depths of philosophy and unfathomable truth. It is not merely a meaningless ritual, which one can recite and forget. It is not to be just swallowed, but one has to taste it, and then swallow it. It has to be absorbed in life. Only then, one can get nourishment from it.



In this way by means of Pratikraman, we contemplate on our sins, shortcomings, misdoings, lapses of past and present, and by realisation along with rectification of the same, we are able to consolidate our future.

The sequence the six `essentials’ is also set in the most scientific manner.

First being Samayik, teaches us the virtue of uniformity, without which it is not possible to cultivate fondness for the good and abandonment from the bad.

After becoming a devotee of good deeds, a man becomes the devotee of good doers, hence now comes the place of chaturvishatistava.

Further, only after becoming a devotee of the good doers, one pledges his obeisance or bows down, hence now comes the correct place for vandana.

He who has modesty in thought, word, and deed always remains away from misconduct and is ever alert about misdoings. Even by unconscious error, if there is a breach of the same, he will be determined to rectify the same, and revert to the truth. Therefore, after Vandana, is the correct place of Pratikraman in the sequence of essentials.

Now having established this basic purity, one contemplates upon the past and present even without consideration of his mortal body. Where such a strong brainwave is prevalent to explore the depths of our past and present for moral upliftment, this mortal body constitutes only a hunk of flesh, bones and blood. Hence, only at this juncture Kayotsarg has been correctly placed.

All said and done, is it enough if we have merely regretted, repented and reverted for our yesterday and to-day? The answer is `No’. Our concern for tomorrow yet goes unfulfilled and everyday, if we start at the base of the ladder, when shall we ever reach the top? To reach the summits and emerge as............



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Arahnato Bhagwant Indra Mahita, Siddhaschaa Siddhi Sthitaa,

Aacharyaa Jinsashnannotikara, Poojya Upadhyayka

Shree Siddhanta Supathaaka Moonivara Ratnnatrayaradhka

Panchai Te Parmeshthin Pratideenam, Kuravaantu No Mangalam ||1||

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Brahmee, Chandanabalika, Bhagawati, Rajemati, Draupadi

Kaushalya, Cha Mrugavatee Cha Sulasa, Seeta Subhadra, Sheeva,

Kunti, Sheelavati, Nalasyadayati, Choola, Prabhavatyapi,

Padamatyapi Sundri Pratidinam, Kurvantu No Mangalam ||2||


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Veer Sarva Sura Surendra Mahito, VIkram Bhooddha Sanshrita

Virenabhihata Swakarama Nichyo, Viray Nitayam Namah |

Vira Tithmidam Pravrutamtulam, Virassaya Ghoram Taapo,

Vire Shree Dhurti Kirti Kanti Nichay, Shree Veeram Bhadram Dishamah  ||


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